Definitively adopted on July 11 in France, the so-called “Gafa” tax creates a taxation of large companies in the technological sector not on profit, often consolidated in countries with very low taxation such as Ireland, but on turnover . This system, set up pending the harmonization of rules at the international level, under the aegis of the OECD, had provoked strong reactions from the United States. But, what does Gafa mean?
The acronym was popularized in France at the beginning of the 2010s and allows to designate the four colossi of the digital economy: Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple. In the United States, however, the term is hardly used. We speak rather of “gang of four” or “big four” (“Big four”).
And the subject has tense relations between Donald Trump and Emmanuel Macron, it is because France has decided alone, for lack of agreement at the world level, to levy from this year a special tax of 3% on the turnover of these companies and others, like Meetic, Airbnb or Criteo. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is expected to propose a harmonized international tax of 12 to 13% on the profits of multinationals, as part of a new global tax system, currently under negotiation.
Note that acronyms have also been invented to qualify the players in this new economy. When Microsoft is associated with Google, Amazon, Facebook and Apple, we talk about “Gafam”. When it comes to talking about the four new emblems of Silicon Valley – Netflix, Airbnb, Tesla, and Uber – it’s the term “Natu” that comes up.
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