Behind the acronym “MAP” hides a pathology called “threat of premature childbirth”. This condition is the leading cause of hospitalization during pregnancy. But what is it all about? How to detect and treat it? We take stock.
Give birth before the term is one of the fears of future mothers. Doctors talk about a premature birth when the birth occurs before the 37th week of amenorrhea. It can be induced, ie caused by a medical decision, or spontaneous. A premature birth spontaneous is often preceded by a threat of premature delivery, more commonly known as “MAP”.
This term is used when the baby is threatening to arrive earlier than expected. According to the High Authority of Health, in 1998, 20% pregnant women were hospitalized during their pregnancy, and 38% were hospitalized for threatened preterm delivery. In France, the incidence of PAD is estimated between 60,000 and 215,000 patients per year.
Threat of preterm birth: what is it?
The threat of premature delivery is a pathology that occurs between the 22nd and 37th week of amenorrhea. It is characterized by the association of uterine contractions frequent, regular and painful (at least three in 30 minutes) and cervical changes. “It is one of the most frequent obstetrical situations and the oldest recognized, but also one of the least known”, indicates the National College of French Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF). If the threat of preterm labor is not treated, it can lead to a premature birth.
MAP: who are the women at risk?
During’multiple pregnancy, expectant mothers are more likely to develop a threat of preterm labor. Women who have already had PAD are also at greater risk. This pathology can also occur in some women without any risk factor present.
MAP: what are the causes of the threat of preterm birth?
The origins of a threat of premature birth are multiple. According to the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF), the history of premature birth, multiple pregnancies, thyroid pathologies and chronic diseases, as diabetes and l’hypertension, can cause PAD. Another risk factor: l’hydramnios, or an excess of amniotic fluid. Urinary tract infectionsvaginal or bacterial origin can also cause a threat of preterm labor. Uterine malformation and severe anemia are also associated with MAP. Other risk factors include surgery, such as a conization.
What are the symptoms of the threat of preterm labor?
The signs that should alert are:
How to diagnose the threat of premature labor?
To diagnose the threat of premature labor, the expectant mother must realize urine tests and blood. The doctor will also ask him to realize ultrasounds and vaginal exams to assess cervical changes and the condition of the cervix. The practitioner will also perform un monitoring to accurately quantify contractions and monitor the fetus.
MAP: what are the treatments?
The treatment of the threat of preterm birth is aimed firstly at reducing uterine contractions. It thus relies on strict bed rest and tocolytic medications. Tocolysis helps prolong pregnancy. Corticosteroids can also be given to pregnant women. Corticosteroid therapy allows fetal lung maturation to take place before childbirth.
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